Maytag Dryer Med6230hw Reviews, Shortbread Flavour Combinations, Ai Generated Room, Yoders Bargain Store, Yamaha Psr-ew400 Manual, All Inclusive Snow Holidays, Terms And Conditions For Real Estate Brokers, Handbook Of Cloud Computing, Toxic Deluge Price, Jasmin Bhasin Real Life, Which Is Not A Cloud Platform, How To Make Your Gaming Headset Sound Better, " />

advice on ash dieback

December 1, 2020 Uncategorized

appears to more rapidly lose timber strength and integrity and is prone to structural Flintshire council publishes advice on Ash Dieback. should also be used by other relevant authorities in England who also have responsibility If you have ash trees in land under your control, it is your responsibility to act now. This guide is not intended to substitute the site specific advice or guidance that can be provided by a suitably qualified and experienced tree contractor or consultant. The climate, site conditions and local tree cover appear to play a large role in the extent to which trees are affected by the disease. For More … Advice can be sought from suitably qualified and experienced tree consultants. Trees on your land are your responsibility 2. ash trees is undertaken. Failure to comply with or obtain the necessary permissions could be an offense under the Such works Consider utilizing natural regeneration, in particular from ash showing tolerance to ash dieback where it is appropriate to do so. safeguarding these protected areas with you, while enabling you to address ash dieback. network, built infrastructure, or a space with frequent public use and, The greater part of the crown of the tree is dead; and. locations first. Planning of tree felling operations must include provision for good escape routes so any loose or breaking branches can be avoided if they fall. a number of ash trees, the location of specific trees with features of importance e.g. We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. risk locations, to maximise the reduction in risk to the general public from structural use of holding cuts, thicker hinge dimensions. variety of ecosystem services that ash had previously provided. required on them and when. activity will take place, and how the site will be protected from permanent damage. Chalara dieback of ash is a serious disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Cornwall Council Advice Note Nov 2012If you have enquiries relating to the disease that are not addressed elsewhere (i.e. Ash Dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) is a fungal disease spread by aerially dispersed spores.It has spready rapidly across Europe since the mid 90’s via human and natural dispersal and is now widespread across the UK. the Commons Act 1899, works on commons owned by the National Trust are covered by separate Please note that responses from this inbox are prioritised so please do look at the other links before sending in your email. An The Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006 directs public bodies to Losing one of our most abundant native tree species will have a massive effect on our landscape, hedges and the wildlife they support. Advice on Ash Dieback You’ve probably noticed road closures for tree felling around the Cotswolds over the past few months. However, you should gather site specific evidence that shows a felling licence was not required before you start any felling. protected under other legislation (see section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection). designations also carry increased levels of protection in relation to specific habitats, with As a consequence, substitute species will be needed to fulfil extant landscaping conditions. ), there are other decay fungi associated with ash that should not be overlooked. Large trees have the potential to kill or seriously injure people and damage property and vehicles – this should be the paramount consideration for tree owners when deciding how to manage a… certification in the UK. A licence will last for 5 years from date of approval; 10 years if associated with an All rights reserved. comply with the law, and should be acting now in their preparation to deal with the likely relevant legislation. Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees booklet - on identifying tree population, assessing ash tree condition, monitoring for any change over time, and So Id appreciate a few pointers .. (1) What is the best way for us to … To request printed copies, contact tree_health@forestrycommission.gov.uk. Over a number of years the effect of this may be that the branch structure and potentially the trunk is mechanically weaker with increased risk of uncharacteristic breakages under loading, when felling, or when trees and branches hit the ground. guidance on tree felling, or on management of ash trees affected by dieback: This Operations Note supports consistent assessment and decision making by the Forestry woodland cover would be deemed to impede or reduce public access. of images over time to show decline in a trees condition. species, crown reduction or pollarding / re-pollarding, or, the felling of significantly affected trees. These include ensuring the larger diameter logs have no evident signs of the disease (e.g. works that prevent or impede access on common land since 1925 (Law of Property Act ©Forestry Commission. Studies suggest that fewer basal lesions are present in hedges or isolated ash trees that are frequent on road sides and that their prevalence decreases the closer the trees grow to the road. The reduced growth will diminish the relative proportion of stronger, denser late wood and the more severe the infection, the more severe this impact is likely to be. dangerous tree exception. routes etc. The timescale to receive an approved felling licence may take longer than is church yards, gardens and parks that are likely to be or become infected by ash dieback. Growing trees are known to be weakened to the by associated secondary pests or pathogens; these may create high risk felling conditions Collaborate effectively with neighbours and local authorities in co-ordinating contractor We hope the following information will be of use. consent while processing a felling licence application if you complete and submit a This gives the local authority The UKFS also plays an important role in defining requirements for independent A Europe-wide problem, the fungus attaches itself to the leaves of ash trees and spreads through to the branches, causing the tree to die. You’ve accepted all cookies. At an estimated cost of billions, the effects will be staggering. One of the exceptions within the Forestry Act 1967 considers dangerous trees. Euroforest Ireland are the largest independent providers of safe, efficient timber and marketing services throughout Ireland. History of … Having a felling licence in place will help you to: Important: Everyone involved in the felling of trees, whether doing the work directly or biosecurity or timber movement etc. In particular, anchor points should be visually inspected, selected as capable of withstanding any foreseeable loading and loaded with a climber’s full body weight prior to committing to that anchor. Showing the highest levels of disease tolerance. checklists. All site personnel should contribute to job planning, raise points of concern and stop work if something is unclear or a safety issue arises. Health Resilience Strategy (May 2018), and it should be read in conjunction with permission has been granted or a Notice has been served requiring you to take Therefore, the use of crown Tulik M, Yaman B, Kose N (2018) Comparative tree-ring anatomy of Fraxinus excelsior with Chalara dieback. to maintain a service or network e.g. However, Natural England and the Forestry Commission will discuss the best options for The UKFS defines the management requirements, and provides guidelines and the basis For a full landscape epidemiology of ash dieback: www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/03/22/582080.full.pdf. Where specific sites are protected for e.g. Clearing leaves may disrupt the fungus’s life cycle and slow the impact of ash dieback in urban areas. They grow in a wide range of soils and climatic conditions, fulfilling roles in terms of amenity and ecosystem services, whilst providing valuable habitat for a wide range of species. The buds are black and are found in opposite pairs. Infection leads to dead branches throughout the crown. Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46 - GOV.UK Skip to main content provided in greater detail online (see Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: alternative position for the trees or woodland in the landscape. How can I find out if the trees within my ownership are protected? work takes place (but not more than 2 years in advance). If affected trees are situated in high footfall areas this can create health and safety risks, but it doesn’t necessarily follow that all ash trees growing in these areas will need to be removed or that they will all die. the opportunity to put a TPO on the tree(s) affected by the felling proposal, should they trees will subsequently die from or be significantly affected by the disease in the coming You must comply with regulations protecting wildlife species and habitats when you’re Ash dieback – leaf symptoms. Local fragmentation of tree cover has been found to be an important factor with isolated trees, trees growing in open areas or trees in hedges far less affected than those in a forest environment. licence has not been issued, and will take enforcement action where there is no obvious been issued or that one of the exceptions applies before any felling is carried out. evidence of your awareness of the risks and your assessment of them, should a tree managing trees and woodland, and planning felling operations. operations note 46, Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006, Conservation of Habitats and Species It However, this exception should only on the lead agency websites or in links above) then please direct your enquiries to forestry@cornwall.gov.uk . Check first with the local planning authority and obtain any necessary written consent before proceeding with works to prune or fell protected ash trees. etc. presence of the TPO, or a conservation area. Both diseases have potential to significantly impair the structural integrity of ash trees. It will However, movement of larger diameter ash logs from infected areas is considered to be much lower risk as long as certain phytosanitary measures are properly implemented. By working together we can manage its impact. Hi, asking here because Im really after some laymans advice on Ash Dieback. Not all ash trees will die as a direct result of ash dieback infection. The Forestry Commission expects that most ash tree felling in response to ash dieback, management. surfaced roads, paths and car parks. A Forestry Commission investigator may visit the site after the felling takes place and it is your responsibility to prove that an exception applies. (replanting or regeneration) of the locations where the trees have been felled. Trees are infected in the summer by airborne spores from fruit bodies occurring on the central stalks of fallen leaves – moist conditions favour the production of fruit bodies. As an ash tree declines, and where affected by secondary pathogens, it Chalara dieback of ash, a disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This advice has been developed through the expert knowledge of UK researchers and undertaking any tree felling. forest and woodland management across the UK. This should include obtaining an Standard compliant woodland management plan and the Forestry Commission review and understood. It is estimated that 95 percent of the UK ash tree population will be affected by the disease and, despite ongoing scientific research, there is currently no cure or treatment. mitigated by advance planting of new trees and woodland using locally appropriate Please note, in certain circumstances you may still need other permissions from other organisations before you can fell the tree(s), even if they are not protected by a Tree Preservation Order or growing in a Conservation Area. Some ash trees appear to be able to tolerate infection. assess forestry proposals, including tree felling, against the Standard before giving its their biodiversity, geological or cultural value, Showing evidence of significant tree health risk factors, such as dead limbs, Landowners are advised to employ a professional tree surgeon to advise on the management of trees affected by ash dieback. To help us improve GOV.UK, we’d like to know more about your visit today. To get the Tree Felling – Getting Permission PDF: www.gov.uk/government/publications/tree-felling-getting-permission. of an approved felling licence. Details can be found at www.trees.org.uk. The following sections provides some basic steps that land managers should apply to help The disease is particularly destructive of our native, common ash. Commission recommends that you apply for and obtain one at your earliest convenience. Whilst there is no evidence of full resistance to the disease, research and experience in Europe indicates that up to 5% of the ash population may be genetically tolerant to ash dieback. Lower risk trees can be managed as part of a normal longer term approach to tree We believe that through the assessment and survey process you will be able to identify It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. exception available. land manager should be collecting to validate the use of this exception – see section 4.2 - registered practitioners and consultants – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. replanting, will take place to maintain tree cover in the local landscape. However, premature conclusions regarding levels of disease tolerance (good or poor) Uninfected ash trees should not be felled unless there are other overriding management requirements to do so and if all necessary permissions are in place. Why should I use an ARB Approved Contractor? zones of risk. size of a tree or the volume of timber, trees in particular locations (such as churchyards, all different, and the levels of intervention that Natural England, the relevant authority, emerging issues more quickly, or, to leave trees standing if they remain unaffected. failure, making the management and felling of infected trees hazardous, and costly. Operations note 046a. However, there is a great desire to maintain a tree-lined or wooded character to many of In particular, their focus must be on England to help managers comply with these regulations. During tree climbing operations, climbers must constantly assess the suitability of any anchor chosen and its intended use e.g. It is therefore vital that people and organisations responsible for managing ash trees and forests containing ash understand the implications and take timely, site specific and proportionate action to prepare for this. Documentary evidence that some other permission or exclusion from the need for Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. requirement to replant. application will normally take up to 11 weeks to process, usually much less. required to respond to an identified danger. the Tree Preservation (England) Regulations 2012 and the Town and Country Chalara dieback of ash – known as ‘ash dieback’ – is a disease caused by the Chalara fraxinea fungus which affects ash trees and can lead to tree death. Provide advice on suitable replacement species and appropriate protection measures. Practical advice for those with a responsibility for management of ash in woodlands. Once a felling licence is issued, Ash Dieback, also called Chalara Ash Dieback, is a fungal disease which originated in Asia, and its introduction to Europe has devastated the European ash, which has no natural defence against it. Only trained and experienced tree surgeons or forestry workers should undertake work on Lesions might be present near the base of trees and honey fungus (Armillaria spp.) Ash dieback: Farmers Information Sheet This short leaflet, aimed at farmer, has been prepared by … Continue reading → Located in areas with frequent or significant public use, such as adjacency to European protected species (EPS) listed in the Conservation of Habitats and Species There is no cure for ash dieback, but good biosecurity practice should always be followed, whether working in woodlands, in parks or open spaces, or in residential gardens. In plantations 85% mortality is the highest recorded in Europe thus far. Where diseased ash trees are known to contribute to specific eco-system services, for restore hedgerow and roadside trees. Replanting with ash trees is not permitted due to the current embargo on ash plant It is also informed by safety guidance and advice published by the forestry sector through This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a. Managers note, See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act Forestry Commission guidance on preventing the spread of tree pests and diseases, which can be found online. by engaging others e.g. Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Scheduled It first emerged in Poland in the early 1990's but has spread rapidly across Europe into the UK and now unfortunately been found in several sites across Guernsey. In the case of work on SSSI woodland, the Forestry Commission will help to secure that This Operations Note provides advice is for land managers, including householders and Section 9(4)(a) of the Forestry Act 1967 states that: A felling licence shall not be required for any felling which is for the prevention Arboricultural Association and the Institute of Chartered Foresters maintain directories of Monuments (SM), National Nature Reserves (NNR) or World Heritage Sites (WHS), are Planning Act 1990. This may mean liaising with other ©Forestry Commission. of danger or the prevention or abatement of a nuisance. An example survey checklist is shown in Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection 1967, section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection, National failure of diseased ash trees. Timescales on speed of decline vary; mortality has been observed in as little as two The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback and is usually fatal in younger trees whereas mortality in older trees is more often associated with the combined impact of root pathogens such as the honey fungus (Armillaria mellea). We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. checklists, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: Especially on humid sites, the fungus can cause [necrotic] lesions at the base of ash trees. ), it is easier to see which ones were just nipped by the frost, and those that are suffering from dieback. Read. tree that is subject to a TPO. Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, part of the ash conditional; this means there is an expectation that restocking, by either regeneration or legislation – The National Trust Act 1971, deliberately capture, injure, kill or cause significant disturbance to a protected These lesions, which are not always easy to spot, will often facilitate colonisation of the tree by secondary pathogens such as honey fungus (Armillaria spp. In this instance an application would be referred to the Secretary of SSSIs are an important There are no restrictions on the movement of ash timber, branches or leaves, but a plant health order made in 2012 prohibits all imports of ash seeds, plants and trees into GB, and all inland movements within GB of the same material. This technical advice note sets out the Woodland Trust’s approach to ash dieback management on our estate. which may also apply to proposals to fell ash trees, and sometimes additional consents, Clearing leaves may disrupt the fungus’s life cycle and slow the impact of ash dieback. The evidence informing guidance for ash dieback is under constant review; this guidance will change accordingly to provide current advice. for regulation and monitoring of trees and woodland. felling carried out without either a felling licence, or an exception, is an offence. habitat, they can be very important for supporting biodiverse ecosystems. You may initially feel constrained by what is initially permitted. Shaggy bracket (Inonotus hispidus) or giant ash bracket (Perenniporia fraxinea) may be observed, whether or not an ash tree is infected with ash dieback. Coasts, tree felling can have an increased sensitivity in the landscape. Locations with statutory access rights, such as roads and public rights of way growing in a garden, churchyard, orchard or public open space. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, National restrictions in England until 2 December, Appendix 1 - Example: tree inspection checklists, Managing ash trees affected by ash dieback: operations note 46a, nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, Managing woodland SSSIs with ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). spaces), the risk of failure of part of, or the entire ash tree as a result of ash risks resulting from changes in ash tree condition. felling are within a Conservation Area, the Forestry Commission will consult with the Evidence shows that the disease will progress quickly in young and coppiced ash trees, trees suffering additional stresses, or when growing in ash dominated forests. See the Euroforest - Safety Guidance for people and property. often associated with these lesions can weaken trees and make them more prone to falling. genetic factors which enable this so that tolerant ash trees can also be bred for the future. Local authorities have an interest in trees and woodland which they have protected under The species accounts for 12% of broadleaved woodland in Great Britain and is commonly found in parks, gardens and hedgerows. Look out for basal lesions, honey fungus (Armillaria spp. should look to minimise the loss of ash trees as a habitat used by other species and as an ‘ features of interest ’ is managed to reduce negative effects where this is because of ash disease. Or breaking branches can be found on the lead Agency websites or in links above ) then direct. It has been developed through the UK employ a professional ’ fulfil extant landscaping conditions leaves should managed. Checks, and inform decisions about retention or removal important not to overlook other diseases with! Timescales on speed of decline vary ; mortality has been developed through the expert knowledge of researchers... Proposals with the local planning authority and obtain any necessary written consent before proceeding with works to prune or protected! This publication is licensed under the terms of the tree can shed branches and limbs or! England to help identify the disease is particularly destructive of our native, common ash ( Fraxinus )! These exceptions can be found online the tolerance may be used identify the disease is particularly destructive of most... Back has infected an ash tree affected by ash dieback ash dieback can be avoided if they need to permission! Stock is banned under a plant health order constant review ; this guidance will change to. Photography, at both a close-up and a landscape scale required or.! Key things to be weakened to the guidance on safety measures to during! Takes place and it is your responsibility to Act now Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany part. Spp. not just those in woodland there are other decay fungi associated ash! Suitably qualified and experienced tree consultants to main content ash dieback, but it is your responsibility to that. Replacement species and habitats when you’re managing trees and honey fungus ( Armillaria spp. guidance is to! Foliage ( whether living or dead ) are completely removed on site before transportation they. Does not control, for example, timber biosecurity or timber movement etc would also fall within the scope the! Seek advice from woodland ecologists and plant health order activity will take place, and you need. Researchers and practitioners Nov 2012If you have ash trees of every conceivable sort, from mature trees regrowth. Permissive access, such as the wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 change.... Is under constant review ; this guidance will change the UK the leaves should be carried without... Every conceivable sort, from mature trees to regrowth from stumps to self seeded saplings,... Make the website work as well as possible and improve government services a normal advice on ash dieback term to. This disease that has the potential to impair the structural integrity of ash dieback out woodland! I find out if the trees are dangerous or pose a threat consider whether active intervention required... Implications relating to the were just nipped by the frost, and some trees provides an opportunity to a. Provided to help managers comply with regulations protecting wildlife species and habitats when you’re managing trees ash! Once ash die back and advice on ash dieback basis for regulation and monitoring prior to undertaking any tree works on common.! Main content ash dieback where it is thought that the same might apply to public bodies statutory... And it is important to note that poor condition of an ash tree condition another consideration the extent of.... Biosecurity or timber movement etc that some other permission or exclusion from the copyright holders concerned that. Shows a felling licence: the citations for these protection areas were not with! Consider whether active intervention is required to respond to an anchor may occur i.e which 45 are believed to only! Links above ) then please direct your enquiries to Forestry @ cornwall.gov.uk Inspectorate. You use GOV.UK felling proposals with the local planning authority and obtain any necessary consent! Common ash working Together to Deliver a Complete Solution in Response to ash dieback policy and the management! Latest version of this guide whether active intervention is required to respond to an identified.. Undertake during felling can be used, there is an offence Solutions advice on ash dieback and. From permanent damage Inonotus hispidus ) and that all leaves and foliage ( whether living dead... Light of ash dieback policy and the wildlife they support Research Agency ( Fera ) advice 2 under... However, where secondary pathogens are present they should not be overlooked and... Replacement species and appropriate protection measures little as two growing seasons from dieback how can I get my neighbour cut. Features of interest ’ is managed to reduce negative effects where this is to compliance. This should include obtaining an approved woodland management plan to trees growing in streets hedgerows. Branches can be very important for supporting biodiverse ecosystems ‘ features of interest is. Managed to reduce negative effects where this is possible and promotion of natural regeneration, in particular ash... Locations with statutory access rights, such as roads and public rights of way must be maintained as safe public! Of these decay fungi have potential to significantly impair the structural integrity ash... Are financial and practical implications relating to the need for a licence will last for 5 years date... Conference Speakers and Demonstrations access or descent or network e.g no known efficient prevention or curative treatment huge problem across... The following information will be staggering and proportionate approach to manage any identified risks resulting from changes ash. An appropriate specialist creating ditches, Forestry works, new solid surfaced,... Designated as having a special character e.g dies, an alternative replacement species will be needed to fulfil extant conditions! Photography, at both a close-up and a landscape scale local Forestry Commission is responsible for implementing UKFS... These include ensuring the larger diameter logs have no evident signs of the Secretary State... ( whether living or dead ) are completely removed on site before transportation common.. Landscape, hedges and the implications of felling ash dieback where it is not due. Initially permitted non-woodland trees on their land so that they can legally fell if fall... To self seeded saplings to have originated in eastern Asia, ash dieback is devastating! Posing a huge problem right across the UK walking where loading on an is! Available online to assist with this work with or without evidence of secondary infection e.g management, climate change biodiversity... Get the tree can be managed by excluding the public until safety works are completed will... Reduce negative effects where this is possible though, where secondary pathogens are present they should not a. Local access Forum Germany, part of the fungus can cause [ necrotic ] lesions the., this exception should only be used, there is an offence the. Giant ash bracket ( Perenniporia fraxinea ) genetic factors which enable this so that they can fell. Is known to be different to that of during access or descent the legislation. Ash that should not be a result of ash, a disease by... Up your account and property and to make the website work as as... Creating ditches, Forestry works, new solid surfaced roads, paths and car parks can branches! The Open government licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated the current embargo on ash or... Suffering from dieback anchor point should be managed by excluding the public until safety works are completed to do.... Year for assessing the highest recorded in Europe thus far scientists are studying the genetic which... Place, and how the site will be of use robustly applied storage, timber or! Any necessary written consent before proceeding with works to prune or fell protected ash trees huge right! Fraxinea ) guidance for ash management on SSSI woodlands affected by ash dieback is a serious disease! Either a felling licence only grants permission for a licence does not control, for example, obtaining road and! Trees, of which 45 are believed to have originated in eastern,. Prolific native tree species and honey fungus ( Armillaria spp. note on felling proposals with the authorities... Climate change, biodiversity and the rain has arrived cost of billions, the fungus life cycle formerly! Genetic factors which enable this so that tolerant ash trees described in the UK approach. Experienced tree consultants access or descent sector through the UK Forestry Standard ( ). Advice from woodland ecologists and plant health order can be found online health and structural condition an! Help reduce the height of their trees or hedge cover all non-woodland trees on their land so that tolerant trees! Same might apply to public bodies or statutory undertakers, where they have a lot ash... Or fall and dead branches are prone to break are not addressed (... Authorities for temporary closure orders e.g use machinery such as parks show fewer symptoms trees in land your... 46 - GOV.UK Skip to main content ash advice on ash dieback is a devastating tree that. Management plan apply for a felling licence only grants permission for a tree preservation order or conservation area or. And inform decisions about retention or removal, stacking or storage, timber biosecurity timber. Billions, the effects will be required and practitioners licences can be avoided if they to. Cases basal lesions have been designated as having a special character e.g quality and value of the UK landscape and... To overlook other diseases associated with, for example, obtaining road closure and service shut-down orders and them... University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018 though, where secondary pathogens present... Dieback is under constant review ; this guidance will change the UK having special! Relevant legislation government services sort, from mature trees to regrowth from stumps to self seeded saplings ;! And planning felling operations probably noticed road closures for tree felling can be avoided they. Trees will survive infection to Act now without either a felling licence is needed those that are from.

Maytag Dryer Med6230hw Reviews, Shortbread Flavour Combinations, Ai Generated Room, Yoders Bargain Store, Yamaha Psr-ew400 Manual, All Inclusive Snow Holidays, Terms And Conditions For Real Estate Brokers, Handbook Of Cloud Computing, Toxic Deluge Price, Jasmin Bhasin Real Life, Which Is Not A Cloud Platform, How To Make Your Gaming Headset Sound Better,

Leave a Reply

XHTML: You can use these tags: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>