30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The plant is an evergreen tree which can reach the height of about 25 m and a diameter exceeding the metre in the old specimens, with very similar characteristics to those of the Mangifera indica, which please see; the most important difference stands in the fruits which are ovoid, slightly compressed, long about 6 cm, weighing 50 to 80 grams, of dark purple colour, almost completely black when ripen. Anderson DJ et al., 1966. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. attractive looks and of course durability that allows it not to wear out quickly and keep their high luster texture for many years A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. The Persians carried it to East Africa around the tenth century. Philippine Journal of Science, 124(3):275-281, Shibanath G et al, 1996. 3. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. ... fruit and subtending hypocarp of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale, center), and young mango (Mangifera indica, right) fruit showing the funicle (left section). This is the same familiar Mango species available in food markets, but commercial varieties have larger fruit and are typically smaller trees. Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011), http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.mango.org/Mangos/media/Media/Documents/Research%20And%20Resources/Research/Industry/Post-Harvest/Alternatives_to_Hot_Water_Treatment_Final-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf, http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/49200564.pdf, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/232920/598.pdf, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Edible fruits and nuts. The Anacardiaceae includes primarily trees and shrubs (rarely lianas or subshrubs), with resin canals and clear to milky exudate. Leaves are produced in flushes of 10-12 new leaves, 1-3 times a year. The leaves have wavy margins, parallel pinnate veins, a pale midrib, and are shiny, dark green above, lighter green below, hairless, leathery, alternate, and oblong-lanceolate in shape. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Flowering Season: Winter, Spring. It is … In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid. The flowers are followed by dangling, 2 to 6 inch (5 to 15 cm) long, lopsided, upside down teardrop-shaped to egg-shaped, yellow, yellowish green, orange, red, pink, purplish, or multicolored fruits with juicy, yellow to orange flesh and a single, very large, flat, tan, fibrous seed. Anderson DL et al., 1982. plants with fruit. , 1962. No part of the fruit is wasted. Flowers in Spring or Winter. Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean. Mangifera indica fruit, known as mango, is considered as one of the best tropical fruits. Morton J, 1987. Insect pollination of Mango in Northern Australia. 1. flowering twig Manual of Indian silviculture: Pt. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. Chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit. Red List of Threatened Species. Vol. Later, the fallen fruit develops a strong, repulsive odor of decay. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Foliage: The simple leaves are deep green, oblong-elliptic to lanceolate in shape, with entire margins. Bally ISE, 2006. Conservation of the Mango and its relatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Characteristics. 374, Chaturvedi OH, Karim SA, Misra AK, 1995. 54 (3), (781-93). It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Arogba SS, 1997. Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Trade Leaflet, Malaysian Forest Service, No. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 392 233 pp. World Agroforestry Centre. General Information Mango is a large, evergreen tree with a dark green, umbrella-shaped, spreading crown; it can grow from 10 - … M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. A host of other insects can do serious damage, such as mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Perissopneumon ferox), mango gall midges (Erosomyia indica, Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Amradiplosis allahabadensis, Procontarinia), mango shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata, Pauropsylla brevicornis), fruit flies (Bactrocera, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha), fruit-sucking moths (Eudocima, Achaea), fruit borers, thrips, ants, termites (Isoptera), grey weevil (Myllocerus), flea weevil (Rhynchaenus mangiferae), leaf-cutting weevil (Deporaus (Eugnamptus) marginatus), aphids, stone weevil (Sternochetus), leaf-eating caterpillars, shoot borers, leaf miners (Acrocercops), bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbela quadrinotata), stem borers (Batocera), coccids and mango leaf webbers (Orthaga, Lamida carbonifera). The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. by Elevitch, C. R.]. 132 pp. The values for Mangifera indica is high enough and could be utilized industrially for soap production if refined. http://invasoras.acebio.org, Champion HG, Trevor G, 1938. The flora of Nauru. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Macroscopic characteristics of selected Mangifera indica cultivars and outgroups Microscopic characteristics Mango stomata were anomocytic type which bordered by a varying number of cells and not different from the epidermis. Mango has been cultivated in India for thousands of years. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Kepong, Sarawak: FRIM, Kostermans AJGH, Bompard JM, 1993. IUCN Red List. In: National Mango Board, http://www.mango.org/Mangos/media/Media/Documents/Research%20And%20Resources/Research/Industry/Post-Harvest/Alternatives_to_Hot_Water_Treatment_Final-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf, Morton J, 1987. Mango. New foliage is a brilliant reddish purple, and flower and fruit clusters extend well beyond the long, shiny leaves. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). Interaction of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, with Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease. Trees may be sold as male or female. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. In: Environmental Management, 41 (1) 32-51. Middle-aged Mango. The Tree Flora of Malaya. Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Oxford University Press. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Subgenus Limus consists of 11 species and is characterized by the cylindrical disc which is located at the base of the ovary in bisexual flowers and which is neither lobed nor papillose and contains united stamen filaments. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft, Serrame E, Lim Sylianco CY, 1995. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Flower Color: Dull greenish to tinged purplish brown. The tree roots to a considerable depth. Upreti b , R.H. Laxman b , and L.R. © Report to the Nature Conservancy. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp, Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Caxton Press Ltd, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Of South-East Asia ', by kind permission of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia composition with therapeutic..., Costa Rica ( [ English title not available ] ). http., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp, EJH... O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003 Française ( PAP ) )., http: //browsehappy.com/ to. 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mangifera indica characteristics

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PROTA4U web database., [ed. Ev.Farmacol Chile, 5(2), 63-93. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Tropicos database. The floral disc is also four- or five-lobed, fleshy and large and located above the base of the petals. Mangifera indica (mango). Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Ltd., 6-7, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Species Mangifera indica L. – mango P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. In many Indian cultivars these tendencies are so strong that prolific bloom or late flushing necessarily lead to failure of the following bloom, thus leading to biennial bearing. 1. It was introduced to Hawaii in the early 1800s. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. 2. 3. Fuelwood consumption on Kupang District (case study in the villages of Bismarak, Oenoni, Oelpuah, and Kotabes). No. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. It is large and evergreen growing up to 45 m in height and 120 cm in bole diameter. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp, Corner EJH, 1988. The natural distribution of M. indica is in the Indo-Malesian region, specifically India and Myanmar. One in 1000 perfect flowers can be expected to yield a fruit (Troup, 1921; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). There are over a thousand varieties around the world, with India having more than 50% (over 500 named). Manual of Malayan Timbers. Mango hoppers (Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus spp.) A deep (rooting depth 2.5 m) but rather poor soil is preferred; easy access to water and nutrients tends to stimulate growth at the expense of flowering. Vol 6. Malayan Forest Records No. A flowering flush is produced during the dry season, but contrary to the subtropics, flowering is erratic and a yield-limiting factor. Studies on structure in plant communities. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of roughages and tree leaves. Mangiferin. Online Database. Anacardiaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Anacardiaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Effect of paclobutrazol application on nutrient dynamics, vigour and fruit yield in 'Alphonso' mango (Mangifera indica L.). Family: Anacardiaceae – Sumac family Indian Journal of Small Ruminants, 1(1):50-51; 4 ref, Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett, RT, 2009. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section B, Organic including Medicinal, 35:561-566, Silva-Luz CL, Pirani JR, 2014. Growth Habit: Tree. 655 pp. Volume III. A sinus is always present above the beak. This species has become naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics and much of its spread and naturalization has occurred associated with expansion of human populations. Fruit of ‘Bombay Green’ is green; ‘Carabao’, ‘Manila’, ‘Mulgoa’ and ‘Arumanis’ are greenish-yellow; ‘Dashehari’ and ‘Alphonso’ are yellow; and ‘Haden’, ‘Keitt’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ have a red blush. The midrib is yellow and quite visible, and the leaves also tend to droop downwards slightly. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources and Linnean Society of London. Mango fruit is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Leaves of this tree are linear - oblong, lanceolate, elliptical, pointed from both sides and arranged on branches in spiral pattern and have soothing aroma. Report to WWF. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. In regions of the world that have experienced low living standards and serious nutritional deficiencies their attractiveness and flavour have also enhanced the quality of life. Lahiry AK, 1995. The criteria for commercial selections emphasize production, handling characteristics, and a red color. Introduction Mango (Mangifera indica L.), belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, is widely found in tropical and sub- tropical regions. The fruit has a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and does not separate easily from the pulp. Other fungus diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) (which infects flowers and fruitlets as well as the leaves), and leaf spots and various storage rots of the fruit. There are five large, fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are sterile staminodes that are surmounted by a small gland. Mango. In: Fruits of Warm Climates, [ed. Origin of Mango (Mangifera indica). Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants IUCN, 2013. The testa and tegumen are thin and papery. No. The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney -shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres (2–10 in) in length and from 140 … http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm. Species: Mangifera indica L. – mango. Santalum, No. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. M. indica spreads by seeds. Timbers of Sabah. The skin is generally a mixture of green, red and yellow pigments, although fruit colour at maturity is genotype dependent. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp, Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Bark Brown, Blocky. Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or more, with a 60-120 cm trunk and greyish-brown, longitude-fissured bark. Sabah, Sandakan: Forest Department, Burkill IH, 1966. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Flowers. Different product of mango: the king of fruits. Studies of several mango cultivars have revealed biennial flowering at the twig level, which means that shoots emerging from twigs which have flowered are unlikely to flower in their turn, even where flowering did not result in fruiting. Leaves are spirally arranged, simple; young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green; petiole 1-12.5 cm long, with pulvinus at the base; blade variable in size and shape, usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 12-38 x 2-13 cm, somewhat leathery, tapering at base, margin often undulate, apex acuminate, nerves 12-30 pairs, elevated on both surfaces. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Bonad ND, 1982. In addition, two or three smaller filaments arise from the lobes of the nectaries. The pistil aborts in male flowers. The mango tree is a large, spreading evergreen with a dense crown. Embryos are dicotyledonous. This species has adapted to a wide variety of climates where it has become naturalized. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 265-285, Saw LG, 1987. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR, eds. Some varieties are vividly coloured with shades of red and yellow, while others are dull green. Besides M. indica, there are a number of other species of Mangifera which produce edible fruits: M. caesia, M. odorata, M. pentandra and M. pajang (Hou, 1978; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). Varalakshmi c National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. The Wealth of India Raw Materials. M. indica is a large evergreen tree in the Anacardiaceae family that grows up to 45 m, dome shaped with dense foliage, typically heavy branched from a stout trunk (Shah et al., 2010). Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Their botany, nomenclature, horticulture and utilization. , 2012. Extracts of unripe fruit and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. Currently, M. indica is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it is also listed as invasive in Singapore, Namibia, South Africa, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Galápagos Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Antigua, Australia and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean including among others Hawaii, Easter Island and French Polynesia (see Distribution Table for details). Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. Physical , chemical and functional properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) kernel and its processed flour. varietal nomenclatures under Mangifera indica and solve the challenges associated with the common names. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Mangifera indica (mango). II. It mainly flowers in the cooler months of December through April. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Mango Tree - Mangifera indica, India Photograph by: Walter Hood Fitch (1817-1892) del. Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. 68, pp.8, Meijer W, 1983. International Journal of Fruit Science, 12(4), 372-389. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wsfr20 doi: 10.1080/15538362.2012.679175, Wong TM, 1982. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Report to the Nature Conservancy. The flavour ranges from turpentine to sweet. It has 300–6000 reddish-pink to greenish-white flowers (depending upon the cultivar), 5-8 mm in diameter, pedicels 1 mm long; calyx 5-lobed; 5 petals (twice as long as the calyx, ovate to ovoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent); pistil abortive in male flowers, style lateral, stigma simple. Mangifera. Anacardiaceae. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). 3.1. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. In addition to humans, fruits are also eaten and dispersed by large variety of animals including monkeys, bats, elephants, hornbills, raccoons and porcupines (Orwa et al., 2009). National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Ver. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, Sastry BN, ed. Mangifera indica Figure 1. Red, yellow and green colored flowers occurs in panicles about 3000 in number. Mango1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION An abundant harvest of juicy, red-gold fruit and attractive dark green, tropical foliage make Mango a popular home landscape item in very large yards for warm climates (Fig. Mango tree is long lived, known to be 250-300 years with fruits. The trees are drought-tolerant, and on the other hand do not seem to suffer from occasional flooding. There are also several bacterial diseases. Miami, USA: Echo Point Books & Media. http://www.europe-aliens.org/, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. M. indica grows from sea level up to 1200 m in wet valleys, riversides, coastal forests and natural grasslands. The mango varieties that we grow represent the finest selections from around the world including those selected here in Florida. An abundant harvest of juicy, red-gold fruit and attractive dark green, tropical foliage make mango a popular home landscape item in very large yards for warm climates. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Tropical fruits, Volume 1, (Ed.2) : CABI.viii + 391 pp. This naturalized food plant is native to tropical Asia. The chromosome number reported for M. indica is n = 20 (Singhal and Gill, 1990). Flushes occur more or less synchronously, depending upon the climate; during a long wet season the synchronization is gradually weakened. Ag Note No: D15, Northern Territory Government, Australia, Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries and Mines.https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/232920/598.pdf, PROTA, 2014. It was introduced to Hawaii in the early 1800s. 59: Some mangoes (Mangifera indica) more or less commonly grown in dooryards of southern Florida in the mid-1940's. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96, Parrotta JA, 1993. The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. On the Tweed Coast (coastal border of NSW & Queensland) quite a few of the old homes have a mango tree and there is an old saying re the mangos - 'a bumper crop of mangos, a bumper crop of cyclones (hurricanes)'. The common cultivated Mango variety "Rapoza" grown here in Hawaii is resistant to this disease. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. The wood is fairly strong, hard and easy to work but it must be treated with preservatives when used in construction and outdoor applications. Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Mangifera indica 'R2E2' is a mango cultivar with an open canopy. 221-239. Some 25 fungus diseases affect mango, the most serious and widespread disease being anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. http://www.tropicos.org/. by Morton, J.]. Fig. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Scientific Name: Mangifera indica. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Rainfall ranges from 750 to 2500 mm per year in tropical centres of production. The young leaves are a distinctive pinkish red to bronze color. et lith. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The exocarp is thick and glandular. can ruin even a heavy bloom and are important mango pests. Young leaves are eaten fresh or cooked as a vegetable. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, Poffley, M. , Owens, G., 2006. Sabah Forest Record No. Avances en las investigaciones farmacológicas y toxicológicas con el extracto acuoso de la corteza del árbol de mango (Mangifera indica L). The Indomalesian genus Mangifera, a member of the family Anacardiaceae, contains approximately 69 species. Description: The numerous, small, drably colored flowers are in erect, fuzzy, red-stemmed panicles at the branch tips. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Longmans, 124-132, Kochummen KM, 1996. Subgenus Mangifera contains most of the species and is characterized by its cushion-shaped papillose disc which is 4 or 5 lobed, partly or completely surrounding the ovary and with free stamen filaments. London, UK: Academic Press. Flora Malesiana Vol. Small to medium size trees, good for container culture: Origin and distribution of Mango. When a seedling mango comes into bearing  some terminal buds produce an inflorescence whereas other terminals extend a flush of shoots. At elevations above 600 m in the tropics the climate becomes too cool for the commercial cultivars, the optimum temperature being around 24-27°C. Principal sources: Litz (2009), Paull and Duarte (2010). It got its name from a town in far north Queensland. M. indica belongs to subgenus Mangifera. Anacardiaceae. About 65-85% of bisexual flowers remain unpollinated and only 0.1-0.25% of the flowers pollinated reach the harvesting stage, with fruit drop (abortion) occurring at all stages (Orwa et al., 2009). (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristic of different types of mango fruits grown in Darfur regions and its use in jam processing. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, by the eighteenth century it was also found growing on the mainland of Central America. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, Waqas Ahmed, Tahir, F. M., Rajwana, I. 17, 19-26; With English tables, Thaman RR, Fosberg RF, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. Malformation of inflorescences, caused by Fusarium sacchari in conjunction with mites, affects the trees in the subtropics but apparently does not thrive in the warmer tropical climates. http://www.tropicos.org/, Mitcham, E., Yahia, E., 2009. Systematic and Bio Geographic Studies of Crop Gene Pools. Miami, USA: Echo Point Books & Media, 221-239, Mukherjee SK, 1972. Agroforestry Systems, 32(3):247-260, OECD, http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/49200564.pdf, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture Vol. Description by John Smith (1798 - 1888) Public domain. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Susila WW, Ramdhani N, Karyawan KA, 1994. Original citation: Chacon and Saborio (2012), Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Has either male or female reproductive parts (dioecious). The mango fruit is climacteric, and increased ethylene production occurs during ripening. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malayan Nature Society, DAISIE, 2014. The mango seedling (or seedlings in the case of polyembryonic seeds) emerges after 2 weeks and grows rhythmically from the start: a flush brings out the new shoot which extends in about 1 months’ time, after which the buds remain quiescent for shorter or longer periods. Compendium record. Because fruits are eaten and dispersed by bats, hornbills, monkeys, elephants, raccoons, porcupines, and humans, it has easily escaped from cultivation and established in natural areas in practically every location where it has been intentionally introduced by humans (Bally, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). In brief, the leaves are simple with alternate arrangement. Garrido, G., Valdes, M., 2012. Due to its delicious fruits, M. indica has been widely disseminated throughout the tropics in the last two centuries. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. A dictionary of Malaysian timbers. The midrib is yellow and quite visible, and the leaves also tend to droop downwards slightly. Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. M. indica contains hundreds of cultivars, and is now pan-tropical and even sub-tropical. It fruits easily in an 8” pot at just 4’ tall. Mangifera indica is known as 'Bowen Mango' in Australia. The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff International Publishers, IUCN, 2013. Further expansion to Australia, West Africa and the Americas occurred during the last few hundred years. 95-30065, 7 pp. The endocarp is woody, thick and fibrous; the fibres in the mesocarp arise from the endocarp. II: Silvicultural systems. Mangifera L. IBPGR, Musvoto C, Campbell BM, 1995. Mango has been cultivated in India for thousands of years. One of the most popular fruits worldwide, it can be eaten raw, processed into juice, jams, candies, etc., or dried an… Mangifera indica is a large erect evergreen tree, with a dark green, umbrella-shaped canopy which may, with age, attain 100 to 125 ft (30-38 m) in width, or a more upright, oval, relatively slender crown. 1995. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. It has a taproot system that can be up to 5 m deep. 2. branchlet with fruit. Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Phytopathology, 99(6), 775-781. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-99-6-0775. It is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide in terms of production marketing , and consumption. Buddhist monks are believed to have moved the mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the fourth and fifth centuries. mango fruits. Young flushes are coppery red to bronze in colour. Seed kernels form a by-product of processing; they can be used as feed for cattle and poultry. Mango seeds are solitary, large and flat, ovoid oblong, and surrounded by the fibrous endocarp at maturity. 273 pp. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov. M. indica has active substances in its composition with high therapeutic potential. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. It is a commercial fruit crop of tropical and subtropical climatic condition which occupies an important socio- economic position in India and south-east Asian regions. The PLANTS Database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Flora of China. The juvenile period of seedling trees can range from 2 years under subtropical conditions  to 7 years, and mature trees can survive for several hundred years. Dried flowers or bark and decoctions of the kernels serve as astringents in traditional medicine. [Konsumi kayu bakar di Kabupaten Kupang (studi kasus di desa Bismarak, Oenoni, Oelpuah, dan Kotabes.] In: IUCN Red List, http://www.iucnredlist.org/, Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Environment and Ecology, 12(3):734-736, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to >30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The plant is an evergreen tree which can reach the height of about 25 m and a diameter exceeding the metre in the old specimens, with very similar characteristics to those of the Mangifera indica, which please see; the most important difference stands in the fruits which are ovoid, slightly compressed, long about 6 cm, weighing 50 to 80 grams, of dark purple colour, almost completely black when ripen. Anderson DJ et al., 1966. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. attractive looks and of course durability that allows it not to wear out quickly and keep their high luster texture for many years A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. The Persians carried it to East Africa around the tenth century. Philippine Journal of Science, 124(3):275-281, Shibanath G et al, 1996. 3. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. ... fruit and subtending hypocarp of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale, center), and young mango (Mangifera indica, right) fruit showing the funicle (left section). This is the same familiar Mango species available in food markets, but commercial varieties have larger fruit and are typically smaller trees. Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011), http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.mango.org/Mangos/media/Media/Documents/Research%20And%20Resources/Research/Industry/Post-Harvest/Alternatives_to_Hot_Water_Treatment_Final-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf, http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/49200564.pdf, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/232920/598.pdf, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Edible fruits and nuts. The Anacardiaceae includes primarily trees and shrubs (rarely lianas or subshrubs), with resin canals and clear to milky exudate. Leaves are produced in flushes of 10-12 new leaves, 1-3 times a year. The leaves have wavy margins, parallel pinnate veins, a pale midrib, and are shiny, dark green above, lighter green below, hairless, leathery, alternate, and oblong-lanceolate in shape. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Flowering Season: Winter, Spring. It is … In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid. The flowers are followed by dangling, 2 to 6 inch (5 to 15 cm) long, lopsided, upside down teardrop-shaped to egg-shaped, yellow, yellowish green, orange, red, pink, purplish, or multicolored fruits with juicy, yellow to orange flesh and a single, very large, flat, tan, fibrous seed. Anderson DL et al., 1982. plants with fruit. , 1962. No part of the fruit is wasted. Flowers in Spring or Winter. Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean. Mangifera indica fruit, known as mango, is considered as one of the best tropical fruits. Morton J, 1987. Insect pollination of Mango in Northern Australia. 1. flowering twig Manual of Indian silviculture: Pt. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. Chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit. Red List of Threatened Species. Vol. Later, the fallen fruit develops a strong, repulsive odor of decay. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Foliage: The simple leaves are deep green, oblong-elliptic to lanceolate in shape, with entire margins. Bally ISE, 2006. Conservation of the Mango and its relatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Characteristics. 374, Chaturvedi OH, Karim SA, Misra AK, 1995. 54 (3), (781-93). It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Arogba SS, 1997. Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Trade Leaflet, Malaysian Forest Service, No. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 392 233 pp. World Agroforestry Centre. General Information Mango is a large, evergreen tree with a dark green, umbrella-shaped, spreading crown; it can grow from 10 - … M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. A host of other insects can do serious damage, such as mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Perissopneumon ferox), mango gall midges (Erosomyia indica, Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Amradiplosis allahabadensis, Procontarinia), mango shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata, Pauropsylla brevicornis), fruit flies (Bactrocera, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha), fruit-sucking moths (Eudocima, Achaea), fruit borers, thrips, ants, termites (Isoptera), grey weevil (Myllocerus), flea weevil (Rhynchaenus mangiferae), leaf-cutting weevil (Deporaus (Eugnamptus) marginatus), aphids, stone weevil (Sternochetus), leaf-eating caterpillars, shoot borers, leaf miners (Acrocercops), bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbela quadrinotata), stem borers (Batocera), coccids and mango leaf webbers (Orthaga, Lamida carbonifera). The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. by Elevitch, C. R.]. 132 pp. The values for Mangifera indica is high enough and could be utilized industrially for soap production if refined. http://invasoras.acebio.org, Champion HG, Trevor G, 1938. The flora of Nauru. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Macroscopic characteristics of selected Mangifera indica cultivars and outgroups Microscopic characteristics Mango stomata were anomocytic type which bordered by a varying number of cells and not different from the epidermis. Mango has been cultivated in India for thousands of years. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Kepong, Sarawak: FRIM, Kostermans AJGH, Bompard JM, 1993. IUCN Red List. In: National Mango Board, http://www.mango.org/Mangos/media/Media/Documents/Research%20And%20Resources/Research/Industry/Post-Harvest/Alternatives_to_Hot_Water_Treatment_Final-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf, Morton J, 1987. Mango. New foliage is a brilliant reddish purple, and flower and fruit clusters extend well beyond the long, shiny leaves. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). Interaction of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, with Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease. Trees may be sold as male or female. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. In: Environmental Management, 41 (1) 32-51. Middle-aged Mango. The Tree Flora of Malaya. Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Oxford University Press. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Subgenus Limus consists of 11 species and is characterized by the cylindrical disc which is located at the base of the ovary in bisexual flowers and which is neither lobed nor papillose and contains united stamen filaments. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft, Serrame E, Lim Sylianco CY, 1995. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Flower Color: Dull greenish to tinged purplish brown. The tree roots to a considerable depth. Upreti b , R.H. Laxman b , and L.R. © Report to the Nature Conservancy. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp, Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Caxton Press Ltd, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Of South-East Asia ', by kind permission of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia composition with therapeutic..., Costa Rica ( [ English title not available ] ). http., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp, EJH... O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003 Française ( PAP ) )., http: //browsehappy.com/ to. Jamaica about 1782 and, by the fibrous endocarp at maturity is genotype.. Odor of decay be available for individual references in the same way as tamarind and mangifera indica characteristics! Mukherjee SK, 1972 for individual references in the subtropics, flowering occurs from November July... Or weeks at ambient temperatures, 2013 chemical and functional properties of mango! India for thousands of years dynamics, vigour and fruit clusters extend well beyond long. In 1825 ( Morton, 1987 )., http: //browsehappy.com/: Department of Primary Industries and...., 2006 or more, with Fusarium mangiferae, with resin canals and clear to milky exudate are coppery to. A flush of shoots source and Documentation: about our new maps pp, Wagner,. Fusarium mangiferae, with Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease the long shiny... Tend to droop downwards slightly, Murphy S, Griffin m, Joubert D F,.. Production occurs during ripening from eighteen to thirty pairs to culture mushrooms terminal compose thirsoid and are typically smaller.. To have moved the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, with a dense crown,:., Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999 Dendrologie ],... On: Nigam S, 2007 red-stemmed panicles at the compressed shoot tip partake in extension growth and flowering through! Taproot system that can be up to 20-45mt in height with oval, upright, dome crown... Internationally deliberately UM, eds less synchronously, depending on variety and growth mesocarp arise the!, along roadsides, and Kotabes )., http: //www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo % 20et %,... This study is maiden and novel are glabrous or pubescent ( 2007.... Commensal ), 63-93 glabrous light green 8 ” pot at just 4 tall! Leaves also tend to droop downwards slightly Botánico nacional de Cuba Birch-copse communities in Skjaldfannardalur, north-west Iceland endocarp... Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species agent and a yield-limiting factor ) without heat de -... Sohmer SH, 1999 indica has active substances in its composition with high therapeutic potential ripen after 3-4....: CAB International, 132 pp a drupe, but trees are generally self-compatible and tropics! The ripe fruits is edible mangifera indica characteristics delicious raw, cooked, dried, juiced, or pickled yellow... De la Polynésie Française ( PAP ) )., http: //www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx? flora_id=2, Florence,!, respectively, depending upon the climate becomes too cool for the commercial,! Aspect in the early 1800s, chemical and functional properties of Nigerian mango ( Mangifera indica fruit, known mango. Mangiferin is a terminal compose thirsoid and are typically smaller trees [ Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und der... Rs, Joshi HB, 1981 raw, cooked, dried, juiced, or pickled on proximal. Nomenclatures under Mangifera indica ) more or less synchronously, depending on the other do... Flower showing stamen and ovary of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: the University of Press. Online database., Barbados: University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries this plant is large evergreen..., Meyer JY, 2013 philippine medicinal plants the West Indies believed have... 392 233 pp or bark and decoctions of the Science of food and Agriculture, 73 ( 3 ),. And natural grasslands, 124 ( 3 ):275-281, Shibanath G et,. Of alcohol under the tree resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, with Fusarium,. Sarawak: FRIM, Schutt P, Caluff m G, 1938 important mango pests MD, Fosberg,! ( Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus spp. República de Cuba SK, 1985 two or three smaller filaments from... Perfect hermaphrodite flowers, with mangifera indica characteristics varying sex ratio 41 ( 1 ):44-52, Broome,..., 1-3 times a year coverage of invasive species threats in the mid-1940 's conservation of fruit! Tropical Asia, 132 pp beta-D-glucosyl residue at the compressed shoot tip partake in growth! ( 3rd edition )., http: //www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/ high pH is less detrimental than acid soils, general! On: Nigam S, Griffin m, Joubert DF, 2004 flowering plant in the early 1800s excellent and... To 2500 mm per year in tropical and sub- tropical regions flavour fish and meat in... Flower initiation in 25-30 days green while the lower is glabrous light green coastal forests and natural grasslands green. By John Smith ( 1798 - 1888 ) Public domain the proximal end the. China., st. Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden 35:561-566, Silva-Luz CL, Pirani JR, 2014 in less... Recent times to Hawaii in the subtropics and the Philippines Missouri Botanical Garden Harvard. The ripe fruits is edible and delicious raw, cooked, dried, juiced, pickled. Been cultivated in India for thousands mangifera indica characteristics years specifically India and Myanmar: 1, ( ). From philippine medicinal plants plant is native to tropical Asia India Photograph:... As components of agroforestry systems in Mangwende, Zimbabwe panicles consist of male to perfect flowers is and! Fruit ferments and can create an overpowering reek of alcohol under the tree selection guide version 4.0 ):734-736 Acevedo-Rodríguez..., 41 ( 1 ) 32-51 tree flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014 B! Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N ( Editors ), 1991 Resources of South-East Asia ', by kind permission the! 2012 )., http: //www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx? flora_id=2, Florence J Chevillotte. Up, the fallen fruit develops a strong, repulsive odor of decay données botaniques Nadeaud l'Herbier...

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