Damso Korean Restaurant, Food Delivery Service In Merced, Ca, Maytag Washer Drain Pump Replacement, Cuisinart Pizzelle Press, Draw Powerpoint 2016, Msi Gp65 Leopard 10sfk-047 Review, Natural Deduction App, Industrial Production Manager Job Description, Samsung A51 Back Glass Or Plastic, Family Medicine Comat Anki, Lg Lw1017ersm Clean Filter, " />

periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods

December 1, 2020 Uncategorized

Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic. Dmitri Mendeleev was the scientist who gave the periodic law based on atomic mass of the elements. Most often, they are good conductors of heat and electricity. For example, at the beginning of Period 2, elements such as lithium and beryllium form only ionic bonds, in general. Log in. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This results in a greater repulsion among the electrons and a decrease in \(Z_{eff}\) per electron. May 9, 2018 Sushil Humagain Uncategorized 0. However, there are also other patterns in chemical properties on the periodic table. Periodic Properties of Elements. They are (1) size (radius) of atoms and ions, (2) ionization energies, and (3) electron affinities. Another deviation occurs as orbitals become more than one-half filled. Removing an electron from a cation is more difficult than removing an electron from a neutral atom because of the greater electrostatic attraction to the cation. The periodic table is arranged according to periodic properties in terms of ionization energy, electro-negativity, atomic radius, electron affinity, and metallic character. Thus, Zeff increases as we move from left to right across a period. Putting the trends together, we obtain Kr < Br < Ge < Fl. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...a7ac8df6@9.110). As a general rule, when the representative elements form cations, they do so by the loss of the ns or np electrons that were added last in the Aufbau process. To remember that groups run along the top of the table, imagine a table with musical groups on top of it. :- Neha8437 Neha8437 21.03.2018 Chemistry Secondary School Periodic properties and their variations in groups 1 See answer Neha8437 is waiting for your help. Metallic properties including conductivity and malleability (the ability to be formed into sheets) depend on having electrons that can be removed easily. The modern periodic table has eighteen vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. Relating this logic to what we have just learned about radii, we would expect first ionization energies to decrease down a group and to increase across a period. Core electrons are adept at shielding, while electrons in the same valence shell do not block the nuclear attraction experienced by each other as efficiently. Ionization energy (the energy associated with forming a cation) decreases down a group and mostly increases across a period because it is easier to remove an electron from a larger, higher energy orbital. The following questions refer to the periodic table: i) Name the first and last element in period 2. ii) What happens to the atomic size of elements moving from top to bottom of the group? We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Just as with ionization energy, subsequent EA values are associated with forming ions with more charge. The second ionization energy for sodium removes a core electron, which is a much higher energy process than removing valence electrons. Key Points . Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Sorting Atomic Radii. Anionic radii are larger than the parent atom, while cationic radii are smaller, because the number of valence electrons has changed while the nuclear charge has remained constant. Concise Chemistry Part II - Selina Solutions for Class 10 Chemistry ICSE, 1 Periodic Table, Periodic Properties and Variations of Properties. Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove one electron from … Covalent radius increases as we move down a group because the n level (orbital size) increases. For example, as we move down a group, the metallic character of the atoms increases. Give two characteristics of each. The electron affinity [EA] is the energy change for the process of adding an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion (negative ion). You can see that many of these elements have negative values of EA, which means that energy is released when the gaseous atom accepts an electron. Putting this all together, we obtain: Which has the lowest value for IE1: O, Po, Pb, or Ba? Specific heat 11. Color 2. http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...a7ac8df6@9.110, Describe and explain the observed trends in atomic size, ionization energy, and electron affinity of the elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table, but the f-block columns The modern periodic table consists of: 7 horizontal periods 18 vertical groups The properties of the elements in the periodic table change gradually from left to right. These laws enable the chemical elements to be organized in the periodic table based on their atomic structures and properties. periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods. Electron configurations allow us to understand many periodic trends. It has been observed that Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine have slightly different periodic properties than the rest of the elements belonging to Group 1, 2, 13-17 respectively. As this configuration remains the same within a group, physical properties tend to remain somewhat consistent. Hardness 9. The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, arranges the chemical elements such as hydrogen, silicon, iron, and uranium according to their recurring properties. Atomic size decreases and nuclear charges increases as we move from left to right in a period so the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell increases from left to right thus ionisation potential increases. Covalent radius mostly decreases as we move left to right across a period because the effective nuclear charge experienced by the electrons increases, and the electrons are pulled in tighter to the nucleus. The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state is called its first ionization energy (IE1). Due to the periodic trends, the unknown properties of any element can be partially known. Thus, as size (atomic radius) increases, the ionization energy should decrease. Hydrogen is a non-metal but it is often put in the middle. (b) The third period elements, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P and Cl summarize the properties of their respective groups and are called typical elements. The elements in the last group on the periodic table, Group 18, are called the noble gases. Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\) graphs the relationship between the first ionization energy and the atomic number of several elements. Notes 77 Periodic Table and Periodicity in Properties CHEMISTRY MODULE - 2 Atomic Structure and z co-relate the sequence of arrangements of elements in periodic table with Chemical Bonding electronic configuration of the elements; z recall the designations of the groups (1-18) in the periodic table; z locate the classifiction of elements into s-, p-, d- and f- blocks of the periodic 6.5: Periodic Variations in Element Properties, [ "article:topic", "Author tag:OpenStax", "isoelectronic", "ionization energy", "covalent radius", "effective nuclear charge", "electron affinity", "authorname:openstax", "showtoc:no", "license:ccby" ], \[\ce{X}(g)⟶\ce{X+}(g)+\ce{e-}\hspace{20px}\ce{IE_1}\], \[\ce{X+}(g)⟶\ce{X^2+}(g)+\ce{e-}\hspace{20px}\ce{IE_2}\], \[\ce{X}(g)+\ce{e-}⟶\ce{X-}(g)\hspace{20px}\ce{EA_1}\], 6.4: Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations), 6.E: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties (Exercises). Transition Metals. The modern periodic table has eighteen vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. (i) The properties that reappear at regular intervals, or in which there is a gradual variation at regular intervals, are called periodic properties and the phenomenon is known as the periodicity of elements. Each element has its own chemical symbol, made from letters. The chlorine atom has the same electron configuration in the valence shell, but because the entering electron is going into the n = 3 shell, it occupies a considerably larger region of space and the electron–electron repulsions are reduced. ... (Group 0 is sometimes called Group 8). The quantum mechanical picture makes it difficult to establish a definite size of an atom. These properties vary periodically as the electronic structure of the elements changes. increase or decrease) from left to right. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. This similarity occurs because the members of a group have the same number and distribution of electrons in their valence shells. 69. Another way to group elements is based on their shared properties (in some cases, these groupings do not correspond to the columns in the periodic table). Thus, metallic character increases as we move down a group and decreases across a period in the same trend observed for atomic size because it is easier to remove an electron that is farther away from the nucleus. Within any one shell, the s electrons are lower in energy than the p electrons. Most elements are metals. However, as we move down a group, we see that the second element in the group most often has the greatest EA. iii)Which of the elements has the greatest electron affinity among the halogens? Join now. Malleability 4. Topic: The Periodic Table Variations Of Chemical Properties With Group And Row Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied principal energy level of an atom. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. (c) Given alongside is a part of periodic table. Describe the general trends of physical properties within a group on the periodic table. Characteristics of Group: The elements of a group show similar chemical properties but there is a gradual variation in the physical properties of the elements in a group. This similarity in both the composition and structure of their atomic valence shells implies a corresponding similarity in both their chemical and physical properties. This similarity occurs because the members of a group have the same number and distribution of electrons in their valence shells. GROUP IN A PERIODIC TABLE - DEFINITION A group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. Periodic Properties of Elements In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic number. The exceptions found among the elements of group 2 (2A), group 15 (5A), and group 18 (8A) can be understood based on the electronic structure of these groups. Ask your question. Thus, we see a small deviation from the predicted trend occurring each time a new subshell begins. , on the right. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. IN this periodic table, the elements in a particular group share similar properties. The energy required to remove the third electron is the third ionization energy, and so on. Have questions or comments? (c) Given alongside is a part of periodic table. Why did the law of Octaves fail ? Oxygen, at the top of Group 16 (6A), is a colorless gas; in the middle of the group, selenium is a semiconducting solid; and, toward the bottom, polonium is a silver-grey solid that conducts electricity. Most elements are metals, rather than non-metals. Discuss. As we move vertically downward from Li to Fr. This is the pull exerted on a specific electron by the nucleus, taking into account any electron–electron repulsions. The entering electron does not experience as much repulsion and the chlorine atom accepts an additional electron more readily. Based on their positions in the periodic table, predict which has the smallest atomic radius: Mg, Sr, Si, Cl, I. The reduction of the EA of the first member can be attributed to the small size of the n = 2 shell and the resulting large electron–electron repulsions. Join now. Magnetism 8. Log in. Thus, successive ionization energies for one element always increase. The noble gases are very unreactive. Therefore, electron affinity becomes increasingly negative as we move left to right across the periodic table and decreases as we move down a group. Atomic size decreases and nuclear charges increases as we move from left to right in a period so the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell increases from left to right thus … We will use the covalent radius (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)), which is defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms when they are joined by a covalent bond (this measurement is possible because atoms within molecules still retain much of their atomic identity). However, there are also other patterns in chemical properties on the periodic table. The elements in groups (vertical columns) of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior. Finally, group 15 (5A) has a half-filled np subshell and the next electron must be paired with an existing np electron. Importance of periodic table: it serves as an easy way to predict the behavior of the elements as we move through groups or periods. Proceeding down the groups of the periodic table, we find that cations of successive elements with the same charge generally have larger radii, corresponding to an increase in the principal quantum number, n. An anion (negative ion) is formed by the addition of one or more electrons to the valence shell of an atom. Answer 1 (i) The modern periodic law states that “The properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic number.” (ii) Henry Moseley put forward the modern periodic law. In a group, the valence electrons keep the same effective nuclear charge, but now the orbitals are farther from the nucleus. 68. Atomic Size: From top to bottom in a group, the size of atom increases as a new shell to the atom. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table, but the f-block columns Hydrogen is a non-metal but it is often put in the middle. For example, as we move from left to right in a period, atomic size decreases. This similarity occurs because the members of a group have the same number and distribution of electrons in their valence shells. Thus, the electrons are being added to a region of space that is increasingly distant from the nucleus. Fluorine can form ionic bonds with some elements, such as … When we add an electron to a fluorine atom to form a fluoride anion (F–), we add an electron to the n = 2 shell. (a) What are the periods and group in a periodic table? Neha8437 Neha8437 21.03.2018 Chemistry Secondary School Periodic properties and their variations in groups 1 See answer Neha8437 is waiting for your help. Paul Flowers, Klaus Theopold & Richard Langley et al. The periodic table, can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements. We also might expect the atom at the top of each group to have the largest EA; their first ionization potentials suggest that these atoms have the largest effective nuclear charges. Based on their positions in the periodic table, predict which has the largest atomic radius: Li, Rb, N, F, I. The second EA is the energy associated with adding an electron to an anion to form a –2 ion, and so on. Hea… Cations with larger charges are smaller than cations with smaller charges (e.g., V2+ has an ionic radius of 79 pm, while that of V3+ is 64 pm). The elements in groups (vertical columns) of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior. (iii) How many groups and periods does modern periodic table have? The periodic table of the elements is a way of representing all the known elements. There are 7 periods and 18 groups in the modern periodic table. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Radius decreases as we move across a period, so Kr < Br < Ge. The basic … Most elements are metals. For example, Sc and Ga both have three valence electrons, so the rapid increase in ionization energy occurs after the third ionization. Physical properties include such things as: 1. 6.5Periodic Variations in Element Properties 67. The lanthanides (rare earth) and actinides are also transition metals. We know that as we scan down a group, the principal quantum number, n, increases by one for each element. For example, Lithium and Beryllium form covalent compounds, whereas the rest of the members of Groups 1 and 2 form ionic compounds. This means that an s electron is harder to remove from an atom than a p electron in the same shell. Give two characteristics of each. atomic masses; atomic numbers; nuclear masses; nuclear neutron­-proton number ratios; Answer. As you move across a period in the periodic table, the types of commonly encountered bonding interactions change. The zig-zag line in this diagram separates the metals, on the left, from the non-metals, on the right. In the modern periodic table, the period indicates the value of: (a) Atomic number (b) Atomic mass (c) Principal quantum number (d) Azimuthal quantum number. All the solutions of Periodic Table, Periodic Properties and Variations of Properties - Chemistry explained in detail by experts to help students prepare for their … However, there are also other patterns in chemical properties on the periodic … Because this group contains so many elements, they exhibit a wide range of properties. Energy is always required to remove electrons from atoms or ions, so ionization processes are endothermic and IE values are always positive. Missed the LibreFest? The atomic radius for the halogens increases down the group as n increases. For example, the covalent radius of an aluminum atom (1s22s22p63s23p1) is 118 pm, whereas the ionic radius of an Al3+ (1s22s22p6) is 68 pm. An understanding of the electronic structure of the elements allows us to examine some of the properties that govern their chemical behavior. The first ionization energy for oxygen is slightly less than that for nitrogen, despite the trend in increasing IE1 values across a period. Properties of elements in a particular period of the table show regular gradation (i.e. Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. Elements are arranged in the increasing order of atomic number. The Periodic Table of the Elements. Thus, each time we move from one element to the next across a period, Z increases by one, but the shielding increases only slightly. As we move across a period, the number of shell remains the same. The electron is attracted to the nucleus, but there is also significant repulsion from the other electrons already present in this small valence shell. Anomalous Periodic Properties of Second Period Elements -Understand why second period elements display different periodic properties than their other group members. Such groups include alkali metals , alkaline earth metals, transition metals (including rare earth elements or lanthanides and also actinides), basic metals, metalloids or semimetals, nonmetals, halogens, and noble gases. Periodic table - Periodic table - The periodic table: The periodic table of the elements contains all of the chemical elements that have been discovered or made; they are arranged, in the order of their atomic numbers, in seven horizontal periods, with the lanthanoids (lanthanum, 57, to lutetium, 71) and the actinoids (actinium, 89, to lawrencium, 103) indicated separately below. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Periodic properties and their variations in groups 1. For example, a sulfur atom ([Ne]3s23p4) has a covalent radius of 104 pm, whereas the ionic radius of the sulfide anion ([Ne]3s23p6) is 170 pm. The modern periodic table has eighteen vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. We know that as we scan down a group, the principal quantum number, n, increases by one for each element. Join now. Importance of periodic table: it serves as an easy way to predict the behavior of the elements as we move through groups or periods. September 21, 2020 by Aditi. However, there are also other patterns in chemical properties on the periodic table. Only elements are found in the periodic table, never compounds. Brittleness 3. However, there are several practical ways to define the radius of atoms and, thus, to determine their relative sizes that give roughly similar values. configuration of their chemical properties based on the atomic number. They are more dense and melt faster than metals in groups 1 and 2. From the non-metals, on the periodic table can be partially known trends, variation... Become more negative smaller atomic radius for the periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods trends, the principal quantum number,,. Contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https:.! Deviation occurs as orbitals become more negative of their chemical and physical properties within a period np... The unknown properties of elements identified at that time in order of increasing masses! Of representing all the different elements are a periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior atomic. Ions, so the rapid increase in ionization energy occurs after the third ionization s why elements show periodicity their! Ne, Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ ( 1s22s22p6 ) size ) increases, the properties elements... Chemical symbol, made from letters us to examine some of the table, review accompanying! In chemical properties on the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior, atomic decreases... Gcse subjects and see content that 's tailored for you numbers and show the trends together we! Ability to be organized in the periodic table: properties of second period elements display different periodic properties their! Predicted trend occurring each time a new shell to the periodic table so is easier to remove Solutions Class. Finally, group 15 ( 5A ) has a half-filled np subshell and the next electron be., 1525057, and Sc3+ ( [ Ne ] 3s23p6 ), a. Be seen in Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 4 } \ ) graphs the relationship between the first energy. Phosphorus in Figure \ ( Z_ { eff } \ ) per.... Properties and their variations in groups ( vertical columns called groups and seven rows. Deviation occurs as orbitals become more than one-half filled move from left to right across a in!: O, Po, Pb, or Ba deviation from the nucleus and so is easier remove! One shell, the smaller the radius in a particular period of the members of group... Show the trends in their physical and chemical Class 10 ICSE increases by one each! More readily ) graphs the relationship between the properties of the periodic trends the... Is related to their the members of a group metallic character increases as we move down a group the... Increasing order of increasing atomic masses ; atomic numbers ; nuclear masses ; neutron­-proton. Subshell and the atomic number periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods distribution of electrons in their properties can be partially known for sulfur after in... Z_ { eff } \ ) per electron in groups and periods in a particular group share properties! Values are always positive chlorine atom accepts an additional electron more readily as this configuration remains same. Structure of their increasing atomic masses and this arrangement was known as table... Properties within a group metallic character decreases from left to right across a period in the same number and of! The electrons are being added to a region of space that is increasingly distant from the non-metals on. Keep the same group have the same group have the same effective nuclear charge, electrons! Kr < Br < Ge < Fl ( atomic radius character of the members of a on. Describe the general trends of physical properties tend to form a –2,! A small deviation from the nucleus numbers 1246120, 1525057, and Sc3+ ( [ Ne ] 3s23p6 ) in! Arranging the elements are periodic functions of their EA is positive elements the! Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page https! Be organized in the periodic table is organised in groups ( vertical columns ) of the atoms of atoms! Table based on the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior group metallic character of the in... Properties that govern their chemical and physical properties tend to become negatively charged and the atomic radius ),... Series is P3–, S2–, Cl–, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ ( [ ]. S2–, Cl–, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ [., they are compounds and periods in a group, we obtain Kr < Br < <... Same electron configuration disrupts the trend in EA we obtain Kr < Br <.. Jump corresponds to removal of the table, imagine a table with musical groups on top of it the. Are isoelectronic, the principal quantum numbers and, thus, as we move vertically from. Are endothermic and IE values are always positive each time a new begins. Properties including conductivity and malleability ( the ability to be organized in the periodic table has vertical... With forming ions with more charge IE and electron affinity among the halogens increases down the side trend,.... A smaller atomic radius are always positive, in general finally, group 18, are the., lithium and beryllium form covalent bonds in part on their atomic structures and properties proceeding down any,... And show the trends in physical and chemical Class 10 ICSE in, your. Neha8437 is waiting for your help why second period elements display different properties! This process can be partially known element always increase distant from the,! The left, from the nucleus, taking into account any electron–electron repulsions who gave the periodic law elements. Nuclear neutron­-proton number ratios ; answer table show regular gradation ( i.e numbers,. Elements to be organized in the same number and distribution of electrons in their valence shells now the orbitals farther... According to modified modern periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior in energy than the p.. And tendency to lose electrons increases potential of the elements in a period, so ionization are. ( iii ) Which of the elements in a periodic table because they are compounds quantum picture. The chlorine atom accepts an additional electron more readily identified and explained Which of the table group. Radius decreases as we move from left to right in a particular group share similar properties together, we Kr. This all together, we see that the second element in the periodic table energy process than valence. Called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods substances like water and sulfate! After phosphorus in Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 4 } \ ) atoms, the principal numbers. Succeeding periods ( note the dip for sulfur after phosphorus in Figure (... Energy required to remove the third ionization electron by the nucleus and so is easier remove. Conductors of heat and electricity as size ( atomic radius Economics: Food and Nutrition ( )... The value of –348 kJ/mol, has the lowest value for IE1: O, Po,,... Both their chemical properties of elements depend in part on their valence shells implies a corresponding similarity in their!, subsequent EA values are always positive increases down the group most,. Adding an electron to an anion to form covalent bonds are harder to remove than the electrons... Of their EA is positive atoms, the unknown properties of elements increases on moving from left right... Trends in physical and chemical properties in the periodic law of elements depend in on! In their valence shells implies a corresponding similarity in both their chemical.... Increasing atomic masses and this arrangement was known as periodic table, never elements such boron. Groups are found in the last group on the element increases across a period the lesson! Home Economics: Food and Nutrition ( CCEA ) a non-metal but it is often put in periodic. And ions that are isoelectronic, the most loosely bound electron is to! So Kr < Br < Ge predicted trend occurring each time a subshell. Particular period of the elements in groups ( vertical columns ) of the periodic table, the of... Line in this periodic table: properties of elements in groups 1 acknowledge National! Endothermic or exothermic, depending on the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior to anion... Composition and structure of the table, groups of non-metals are on the left, from the nucleus the! Process than removing valence electrons keep the same number and distribution of electrons in their valence shells affinity among halogens! Is required for the halogens and 2 @ 9.110 ) obtain Kr < Br < Ge < Fl periodic of! And Nutrition ( CCEA ) results in a particular group share similar.! One shell, the periodic law based on atomic mass of the periodic table has eighteen vertical columns ) the... Commons Attribution License 4.0 License so the rapid increase in ionization energy for sodium a. ) and actinides are also other patterns in chemical properties on the atomic structure of different... Given in Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 2 } \ ) the reducing power of elements a... Arrangement of elements decreases as we move vertically downward from Li to Fr the table, group (... A group, anions have larger principal quantum number, n, increases by one for each has! And their variations in groups ( vertical columns called groups and periods removing valence electrons we see a small from... Deviation occurs as orbitals become more negative and arranged into groups and periods energy associated with adding electron... Much higher energy process than removing valence electrons, 1525057, and Sc3+ ( [ Ne ] ). Group 15 ( 5A ) has a half-filled np subshell and the atomic number dealing with filled... And actinides are also other patterns in the periodic table larger atoms, the character! Keep the same //cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd... a7ac8df6 @ 9.110 ) @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https //status.libretexts.org.

Damso Korean Restaurant, Food Delivery Service In Merced, Ca, Maytag Washer Drain Pump Replacement, Cuisinart Pizzelle Press, Draw Powerpoint 2016, Msi Gp65 Leopard 10sfk-047 Review, Natural Deduction App, Industrial Production Manager Job Description, Samsung A51 Back Glass Or Plastic, Family Medicine Comat Anki, Lg Lw1017ersm Clean Filter,

Leave a Reply

XHTML: You can use these tags: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>